Publications in the Richard King Lab

Government Documents

King, RB, and KM Stanford. 2015. Lake Erie watersnake post-delisting monitoring. Final report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 30 June 2015. 45 pp

King, R.B. 2013. Illinois Conservation Assessment for the Blanding’s Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board, Illinois Department of Natural Resources. 91 pp.

King, R.B., and M. Niiro. 2013. Predicting climate-change induced distributional shifts in Great Lakes region reptiles. Final report to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 30 Sep 2013. 76 pp.

Journal Articles

Virgin, EE, and RB King. 2019. What does the snake eat? Breadth, overlap and non-native prey in the diet of three sympatric natricines. Herpetological Conservation and Biology. 14:132-142.

Bradke, D., ET Hileman, JF Bartman, LJ Faust, RB King, N Kudla, and JA Moore. 2018. Implications of small population size in a threatened pitviper. Journal of Herpetology 52:387–397.

King, RB, KM Stanford, and PC Jones. 2018. Sunning themselves in heaps, knots, and snarls: The extraordinary abundance and demography of island watersnakes Ecology and Evolution 8:7500–7521. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.4191

Hileman, ET, RB King, and LJ Faust. 2018. Demography of a threatened rattlesnake: does prescribed fire increase extinction probability? Journal of Wildlife Management 82:977–990. DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.21457t 

Jones, PC, RB King, S Sutton. 2017. Demographic analysis of imperiled Eastern Massasaugas (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus). Journal of Herpetology 51:383-387.

Hileman, E.T., 
R.B. King, and 43 others. 2017. Climatic and geographic predictors of life history variation in Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus): A range-wide synthesis. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0172011. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172011.

Mack, EW, JL Beck, KM Stanford, RB King. 2016. Maternal investment and delayed feeding in neonatal Lake Erie Watersnakes: a life history strategy. Journal of Zoology DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12404.

Jaeger, CP, MR Duvall, BJ Swanson, CA Phillips, MJ Dreslik, SJ Baker, RB King. 2016. Microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex variation in an endangered rattlesnake, the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus). Ecology and Evolution. doi: 10.1002/ece3.2159.

Stedman, AL, CP Jaeger, ET Hileman, BC Jellen, CA Phillips, BJ Swanson, RB King. 2016. Multiple paternity in three wild populations of Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus). Herpetilogical Conservation and Biology 11:160-167.

King, R. B., K. M. Stanford, P. C. Jones, and K. Bekker. 2016. Size matters: individual variation in ectotherm growth and asymptotic size. PLoS ONE 11(1):e0146299. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146299.

Hileman, E. T., D. R. Bradke, D. M. Delaney, and R. B. King. 2015. Protection by association: implications of scent trailing in neonate Eastern Massasaugas (Sistrurus catenatus). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 10:654-660.

Jaeger, C. P., R. B. King, and M. R. Duvall. 2014. Initial characterization of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIB exon 2 in an endangered rattlesnake, the Eastern Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus). The Journal of North American Herpetology 2014:98-104.

Sacerdote, A. B., King, R. (2014). Direct effects of an invasive European buckthorn metabolite on embryo survival and development in Xenopus laevis and Pseudacris triseriata. Journal of Herpetology. 48:51-58.

King, R., Bowden, R. (2013). Seasonal, condition-dependent, and individual variation in testosterone in a natricine snake. Journal of Herpetology 47:179-183.

Ray, J. W., King, R., Duvall, M., Robinson, J. W., Jaeger, C. P., Dreslik, M. J., Swanson, B. J., Mulkerin, D. (2012). Genetic analysis and captive breeding program design for the Eastern Massasauga Sistrurus catenatus catenatus. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 4:104-113,

Walley, H., King, R., Wusterbarth, T. L., Ray, J. M. (2012). Nerodia sipedon. Catalog of American Amphibians and Reptiles 899:1-58.p

Jadin, R., King, R. (2012). Ontogenetic effects on snake hemipenal morphology. Journal of Herpetology 46:393-395.

Jones, P. C., King, R., and 30 others. (2012). Range-wide analysis of Eastern Massasauga survivorship. Journal of Wildlife Management. 76:1576-1586.

Stanford, K. M., R. B. King, and D. Wynn. 2010. Summer and winter spatial habitat use by the Lake Erie Watersnake. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 1:122-130.

Wusterbarth, T.L.,R.B. King, M.R. Duvall, W.S. Grayburn, and G.M. Burghardt. 2010. Phylogenetically widespread multiple paternity in New World natricine snakes. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 5:86-93.

Sacerdote, A. B., and R. B. King. 2009. Dissolved oxygen requirements for hatching success of two ambystomatid salamanders in restored ephemeral ponds. Wetlands 29: 1202-1213.

King, R. B., R. Jadin, M. Grue, and H. D. Walley. 2009. Behavioural correlates with hemipenis morphology in New World natricine snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 98:110-120. 

Jones, P. C., R. B. King, K. M. Stanford, T. D. Lawson, and M. Thomas. 2009. Frequent consumption and rapid digestion and prey by the Lake Erie watersnake with implications for an invasive prey species. Copeia 2009:437-445.

King, R. B., K. M. Stanford, and J. M. Ray. 2008. Reproductive consequences of a changing prey base in island watersnakes (reptilia: colubridae). South American Journal of Herpetology. 3:155-161.

Fernie, K. J., R. B. King, K. G. Drouillard, and K. M. Stanford. 2008. Temporal and spatial patterns of contaminants in Lake Erie watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon insularum) before and after the round goby (Apollonia melanostoma) invasion. Science of the Total Environment 406:344-351.

Placyk, J. S., Jr., G. M. Burghardt, R. L. Small, R. B. King, G. S. Casper, and J. W. Robinson. 2007. Post-glacial recolonization of the Great Lakes region by the common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) inferred from mtDNA sequences.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43:452-467.

King, R. B., A. Queral-Regil, and K. M. Stanford. 2006. Population size and recovery criteria of the threatened Lake Erie watersnake: Integrating multiple methods of population estimation. Herpetological Monographs 20:83-104.

King, R. B., and K. M. Stanford. 2006. Headstarting as a management tool: a case study of the Plains gartersnake. Herpetologica 62:283-292.

King, R. B., J. M. Ray, and K. M. Stanford. 2006. Gorging on gobies: beneficial effects of alien prey on a threatened vertebrate. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84:108-115.

Ray, J. M., and R. B. King. 2006. The temporal and spatial scale of microevolution: fine-scale color pattern variation in the Lake Erie watersnake, Nerodia sipedon insularum. Evolutionary Ecology Research. 8:915-925.

Stanford, K.M., and R.B. King 2004. Growth, survival and reproduction in a northern Illinois population of the Plains gartersnake, Thamnophis radix. Copia 2004: 365-478.

King, R. B. 2003. Mendelian inheritance of melanism in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis. Herpetologica. 59:486-491.

Bittner, T. D., and R. B. King. 2003. Gene flow and melanism in garter snakes revisited: a comparison of molecular markers and island vs. coalescent models. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 79:389-399.

Bittner, T. D., R. B. King, and J. M. Kerfin. 2002. Effects of body size and melanism on the thermal biology of garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis). Copeia. 2002:477-482.

King, R. B. 2002. Family, sex, and testosterone effects on garter snake behaviour. Animal Behaviour.64:345-359.

King, R. B. 2002. Predicted and observed maximum prey size – snake size allometry. Functional Ecology 16:766-772.

King, R. B., W.B. Milstead, H.L. Gibbs, M.R. Prosser, G.M. Burghardt, and G.F. McCracken. 2001 Application of microsatellite DNA markers to discriminate between maternal and genetic effects on scalation and behavior in multiply-sired garter snake litters. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 79:121-128.

King, R. B., and R. Lawson. 2001. Patterns of population subdivision and gene flow in three sympatric natricine snakes. Copeia 2001:602-614.

King, R. B. 2000. Analyzing the relationship between clutch size and female body size. Journal of Herpetology 34:148-150.

King, R. B., J.H. Cline, and C.J. Hubbard. 2000. Age and litter effects on testosterone levels in young water snakes. Copeia. 2000:593-596.

King, R. B., T.D. Bittner, A. Queral-Regil, and J.H. Cline. 1999. Sexual dimorphism in neonate and adult snakes. Journal of Zoology 247:19-28.

Queral-Regil, A., and R. B. King. 1998. Evidence for phenotypic plasticity in snake body size and relative head dimensions in response to amount and size of prey. Copeia 1998:423-429.

King, R. B. and R. Lawson. 1997. Microevolution in island water snakes. BioScience 47:279-286.

King, R. B., M. J. Oldham, W. F. Weller and D. Wynn. 1997. Historic and current amphibian and reptile distributions in the island region of western Lake Erie. American Midland Naturalist 138:153-173.

King, R. B. and J. R. Turmo. 1997. The effects of ecdysis on feeding frequency and behavior of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Journal of Herpetology 31:310-312.

King. R. B. 1997. Variation in brown snake (Storeia dekayi) morphology and scalation: sex, family, and microgeographic differences. J. Herpetology 31:335-346.

King, R. B. and R. Lawson. 1996. Sex-linked inheritance of fumarate hydratase alleles in natricine snakes. Journal of Heredity 87:81-83.

Lawson, R. and R. B. King. 1996. Gene flow and melanism in Lake Erie garter snake populations. Biological Journal of Linnean Society 59:1-19.

King, R. B. and R. Lawson. 1995. Color pattern variation in Lake Erie water snakes: the role of gene flow. Evolution 49:885-896.

King, B. H. and R. B. King. 1995. Sibmating and its fitness consequences in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 8:723-730.

King, R. B., S. Hauff, and J. B. Phillips. 1994. Physiological color change in the green treefrog: effects of background brightness and temperature. Copeia 1994:422-432.

King, B. H. and R. B. King. 1994. Sex ratio manipulation in response to host size in the parasitoid wasp Spalangia cameroni: is it adaptive? Behavioral Ecology 5:448-454.

King, R. B. 1993. Microgeographic, historical, and size-correlated variation in water snake diet composition. Journal of Herpetology 27:175-185.

King, R. B. 1993. Determinants of offspring number and size in the brown snake, Storeria dekayi. Journal of Herpetology 27:175-185.

King, R. B., J. B. Phillips, and C. L. Baube. 1993. Scotopic spectral sensitivity of the optomotor response in the green treefrog Hyla cinerea. Journal of Experimental Zoology 267:40-46.

King, R. B. 1993. Color pattern variation in Lake Erie water snakes: inheritance. Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:1985-1990.

King, R. B. 1993. Color pattern variation in Lake Erie water snakes: prediction and measurement of natural selection. Evolution 47:1819-1833.

King, R. B. 1992. Lake Erie water snakes revisited: morph and age specific variation in relative crypsis. Evolutionary Ecology 6:115-124.

King, R. B. and B. H. King. 1991. Sexual differences in color and color change in woodfrogs. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69:1963-1968.

King, R. B. 1989. Body size variation among island and mainland snake populations. Herpetologica. 45:84-88.

King, R. B. 1989. Sexual dimorphism in snake tail length: sexual selection, natural selection, or morphological constraint? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 38:133- 154.

King, R. B. 1988. Polymorphic populations of the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis near Lake Erie. Herpetologica 44:451-458.

King, R. B. 1987. Reptile distributions on islands in Lake Erie. Journal of Herpetology 21:65-67.

King, R. B. 1987. Color pattern polymorphism in the Lake Erie water snake, Nerodia sipedon insularum. Evolution 41:241-255.

King, R. B. 1986. Population ecology of the Lake Erie water snake, Nerodia sipedon insularum. Copeia 1986:757-772.

Book Chapters

King, RB, and KM Stanford. In press. Lake Erie Watersnake Nerodia sipedon insularum (Conant and Clay 1937). In The Reptiles of Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey, Inc.

Mack, EW, and RB King. In press. The Common Watersnake, Nerodia sipedon (Linnaeus 1758). In Kapfer, J, E Wild, D Brown, eds. Amphibians and Reptiles of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press.

King, RB. In press. Dekay’s Brownsnake, Storeria dekayi (Holbrook 1836). In Kapfer, J, E Wild, D Brown, eds. Amphibians and Reptiles of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press.

King, RB, KM Stanford. In press. Decline and recovery of the Lake Erie Watersnake: a conservation success story. In Lillywhite, HB, M Martins, editors. Islands and Snakes. Oxford University Press.

King, R. B. 2009. Population and conservation genetics. In S. Mullin and R. A. Seigel, Snakes: Ecology and Conservation Biology. Cornell University Press. Pp. 78-122.

King, R. B. 2000. Lake Erie water snake. In A. Tennant and R. D. Bartlett (eds.). Snakes of North America: Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing Company. Pp. 129-131 and plates 63a - b.

King, R. B. 1989. Lake Erie water snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum). In W. F. Weller and M. J. Oldham (eds.). Ontario Herpetofaunal Summary 1986. Ontario Field Herpetologists.

King, R. B. 1988. Biogeography of reptiles on islands in Lake Erie. In J. Downhower (ed.). The Biogeography of the Island Region of Western Lake Erie. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio, pp 125-133.


Vecchiet, J, TD Schramer, and RB King. 2018. Natural History Notes: Thamnophis radix (Plains Gartersnake). Diet/Ophiophagy. Herpetological Review 49:558.

Hileman, E, J Vecchiet, and RB King. 2018. Natural History Notes: Sistrurus catenatus (Eastern Massasauga). Dicephalism. Herpetological Review 48:685.

King, R. B.
, Queral-Regil, A., Bittner, T. D., Kerfin, J. M., and Hageman, J. 1999 Nerodia sipedon insularum (Lake Erie water snake). Diet. Herpetological Review. 30:169-170.

Stanford, K. M., R. B. King, K. A. Bekker, D. D. Jacobs, and T. Reichard. 2010. Nerodia sipedon insularum (Lake Erie Watersnake) Offspring retention and mortality Herpetological Review 41:367-369.

King, R. B. 2009. Geographic Distribution: Clonophis kirtlandii (Kirtland’s snake). Herpetological Review 40: 455.

King, R. B. 2009. Obituary: Harlan D. Walley. Herpetological Review 40:5-6.

Robinson, J. W., and J. W. Ray. 2008. Geographic Distribution: Opheodrys vernalis (Smooth Greensnake). Herpetological Review 39:242.

Walley, H., King, R. B., Ray, J. M., Robinson, J. 2005. Erosion mesh netting: a major threat hazard to snakes. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 41:36-38.

Walley, H., King, R. B., Ray, J. M., Robinson, J. 2005. What should be done about erosion mesh netting and its destruction of herpetofauna? Journal of Kansas Herpetology 16:26-28.

Andre, M. A., and H. D. Walley. 2002. Geographic Distribution: Storeria occipitomaculata (Red-bellied Snake). Herpetological Review 33:325.

Walley, H., and K. Stanford. 2000. Geographic Distribution: Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper). Herpetological Review 31:183.


Photo of Richard King

Richard B. King
(815) 753-7833
Office: MO 445
Dept. of Biological Sciences
Northern Illinois University
DeKalb, IL 60115